Catoxtromancy is a form of divination by means of looking glasses. In ancient Rome, special diviners known as “blindfolded boys” were known to gaze into mirrors in order to experience visions of the future or of the unknown, and according to the 4th century ‘Scriptores Historiae Augustae’ the death of Julian the Apostate was accurately predicted by diviners using this method.

  • Dee’s Speculum or Mirror (an obsidian Aztec cult object in the shape of a hand-mirror, brought to Europe in the late 1520s),which was once owned by Horace Walpole.
  • In two works, Phaenomena and Mirror, Eudoxus described constellations schematically, the phases of fixed stars (the dates when they are visible), and the weather associated with different phases. Through a poem of Aratus (c. 315–245 bc) and the commentary on the poem by the astronomer Hipparchus (c. 100 bc), these works had…
  • Aspecial way of knowing certain events, specifically by introspection. This is called the “privileged access” view. John Locke, contrasting this way of knowing with sensation, called it “reflection,” defining it as “that notice which the mind takes of its own operations and the manner of them.” It is a way of being aware of one’s own present states without…
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